Cervical Cancer 101

What is cervical cancer?
Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control.  Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even if it spreads to other body parts later. 

When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. The cervix connects the vagina (the birth canal) to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus (or womb) is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant.

Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecologic cancer to prevent with regular screening tests and follow-up. It also is highly curable when found and treated early.

Who gets cervical cancer?
All women are at risk for cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women over age 30. Each year, approximately 12,000 women in the United States get cervical cancer.

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another during sex. Most sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives, but few women will get cervical cancer.

How can I prevent cervical cancer?

  • See your doctor regularly for a Pap test that can find cervical pre-cancers.
  • Follow up with your doctor, if your Pap test results are not normal.
  • Get the HPV vaccine. It protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 years, but can be given as early as age 9 and until age 26. The vaccine is given in a series of either two or three shots, depending on age. It is important to note that even woman who are vaccinated against HPV need to have regular Pat tests to screen for cervical cancer. 
  • Don't smoke

What are the symptoms?
Early on, cervical cancer may not cause signs and symptoms.  Advanced cervical cancer may cause bleeding or discharge from the vagina that is not normal for you, such as bleeding after sex. If you have any of these signs, see your doctor.  They may be caused by something other than cancer, but the only way to know is to see your doctor Here is a helpful chart and diary from the Centers for Disease Control to review and keep track of your symptoms that you can share when you visit your doctor. 

Gynecological Cancer Symptoms Diary

Cervical Cancer